A Complete Guide to Steps Involved in Casting Process

We know that casting is the process of pouring molten metal in a desired shaped cavity and allowing it to solidify. After the solidification we get the desired shaped object.

Please read :

Basic Operation of the casting process
  • First we have to make a pattern 
  • Then the we have to melt the metal by applying heat 
  • pouring the metal into the mold and confirming that the metal gets the desired shape. 

What is Pattern in Casting Process  

Pattern is the object used to make cavity in the mold. The molten metal is poured into this cavity.

Why a good Pattern is required in casting ? 

  • To obtain the desired shape and size. 
  • It is easy to design and manufacture. 
  • making a pattern is not expensive. 
  • It is of high strength. 
Pattern Materials 
  • Wood 
  • Cast Iron / Brass 
  • Aluminum or White metal 
  • Plastic gypsum 
For a complete knowledge of pattern materials go to this link

Pattern Allowances 

  • Shrinkage allowance (due to cooling)
  • Machining allowance (due to machining)
  • Shaking allowances (due to rapping)
  • Draft allowance (follow the link)
  • Distortion allowance (due to irregular shape) 
For a complete knowledge about the allowances in patterns follow this link
Different Types of Patterns used in Casting 

  • Split piece pattern 
  • Match plate pattern 
  • cope and drag patterns 
  • sweep patterns 
  • draw backs 
  • Loose piece pattern 
  • Gated pattern 

Preparing Mould for the Casting 

While preparing mould one should be very careful . Different types of sands and binders are used in mould preparation. These are 

Green sand mould: Natural sands , clay and water is used in making green sand mould. It is very cheap with acceptable errors.  

Dry Sand Mould: It is natural sand mould with cereal and pitch used binders. 

Other materials for mould preparation includes silica sand and binder with additives. 

Please Read : 

Different Properties of the moulding sand 

These are the desired properties of the moulding sand 
  • Refractoriness 
  • Cohesiveness 
  • Permeability 
  • Co-efficient of expansion 
  • Adhesiveness 
  • Collapsibility 
  • Plasticity 
For details of each of the properties follow this link : 

Tests for the different moulding sands 
  1. Moisture Content Test 
  2. Fineness Test 
  3. Testing Amount of Clay 
  4. Permeability Test 
  5. Mould hardness test 
  6. Strength or cohesiveness test 

Core Making 

What is Core ? 
It is a structure made of refractory material . It is prepared before pouring the molten metal on to the cavity. There is another term known as core print which is the projection on a pattern used to make spaces in the mould. It is also known as core seat. 

Criteria for selecting a furnace for casting 

  1. Capacity needed to hold the molten metal 
  2. Melting rate 
  3. Quality of the melt 
  4. Temperature needed 
  5. Method of pouring 
Operation in Cupola Furnace 

Cupola is the most popular furnace for casting non ferrous and ferrous materials . It is known as a shaft furnace. The shell of cupola furnace is made of steel of 8-10 mm thickness. The shell is supported by columns or legs. The inside of the furnace is lined with refractory material to save the furnace from over heating.  

Different types of casting processes 

  1. Sand Casting 
  2. Shell Mold Casting 
  3. Expandable Mold Casting 
  4. Plaster Mold 
  5. Ceramic Mold 
  6. Investment Mold or Lost Wax Casting  
  7. Permanent Mold 
  8. Die Casting 
  9. Centrifugal casting 
Casting Defects 

steps involved in casting process

And lastly comes the casting defects. These defects can occur for different reasons like air trapping in the sand mold, low quality sands, improper ramming , defecting sand mold etc. Go through this link for detailed knowledge of casting defects.


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